Gov. We have examined the prospects for colonizing Mars, addressing the question of its economic viability. And significantly for interplanetary commerce, Mars and Earth are the only two locations in the solar system where humans will be able to grow crops for export. Far more valuable than the open real-estate will be habitable real estate beneath the domes. The potential of relatively near-term types of interplanetary transportation systems is examined, and it is shown that with very modest advances on a historical scale, systems can be put in place that will allow individuals and families to emigrate to Mars at their own discretion. The Moon is also deficient in about half the metals (for example copper) of interest to industrial society, as well as many other elements of interest such as sulfur and phosphorus. In Table 2 the mass numbers are for the total mission, it is understood that the total launch requirement could be divided up into many launch vehicles, as required. Necessity is the mother of invention; Mars will provide the cradle. Another alternative is that Mars could pay for itself by transporting back ideas. Thus in a single booster launch, 24 people, complete with their housing and tools, can be transported one way from Earth to Mars. R. Zubrin and C. McKay, "Technological Requirements for Terraforming Mars," AIAA 93-2005, AIAA/SAE 29th Joint Propulsion Conference, Monterey CA 1993. EIN: 41-0953924. Thus, if plants were grown in greenhouses on the Moon ( a very difficult proposition, as we shall see) most of their biomass material would have to be imported. We have shown, that of all bodies in the solar system other than Earth, Mars is unique in that it has the resources required to support a population of sufficient size to create a new branch of human civilization. The results are shown in fig. Mars has every required element in abundance. Under conditions of such large scale and open immigration, sale of real-estate will add a significant source of income to the planet's economy. The temperature rise induced by the presence of these gases causes CO2 adsorbed in the regolith to be outgassed, increasing the greenhouse effect still more, causing more outgassing, etc. Mars is the best target for colonization in the solar system because it has by far the greatest potential for self-sufficiency. Is it worthwhile spending precious resources colonizing mars? It's not a sum of money that anyone would spend lightly, but it is a sum of money that a large number of people could finance if they really wanted to do so. Expansion area is available in the fifth (uppermost) deck after the cargo it contains is unloaded upon arrival. As a nonprofit news organization, our future depends on listeners like you who believe in the power of public service journalism. Robert Zubrin, founder and President of the Mars Society, has come forward with his suggestions to aid economic recovery… President John F. Kennedy at Rice University in 1962. For chemical interplanetary systems, it is assumed that the dry inert mass excluding tankage is equal to 20% the payload. Once the techniques have been mastered that will allow the support of a large population on Mars out of indigenous resources, the settlement of Mars can begin. Moreover the projected population growth rate, 1/5th that of Colonial America, while a bit slow, is significant on a historical scale, and assuming a cost of $1 billion per launch, the $4 billion per year program cost could be sustained for some time by any major power on Earth that cared to plant the seeds of its posterity on Mars. If nuclear electric propulsion is introduced the story changes, but not much. Mortality rates are 0.1% per year between ages 0 and 59, 1% between ages 60 and 79, 10% per year for those over 80. It seems our current environment, political environment and otherwise, suggests that companies will be a key part of colonizing other planets. However, history shows that when you ... 2. At a delivery price of $100/kg to LEO, and assuming that the cost of the cycler itself is amortized over a very large number of missions, this in turn translates into a cost of $320,000 per passenger to Mars. Now let us assume that starting in 2030 AD, an average of four such boosters are launched every year from Earth. Because the necessary income will be there to pay for the trip after it has been made, loans can even be taken out to finance the journey. Each 100 meter diameter dome, massing about 50 tonnes (32 tonnes for the inflatable Kevlar pressure dome, 16 tonnes for the Plexiglas geodesic rigid shield dome, 2 tonnes for miscellaneous fittings), would enclose an area of about 2 acres. And also since I wrote my Mars books, we’ve discovered that the surface is way more poisonous than we thought it was. In Global Challenges, Igor Levchenko from Nanyang Technological University and Kateryna Bazaka from Queensland University of Technology, along with their colleagues, discuss the ethical, legal, and economic challenges and open questions facing Mars colonization, drawing attention to the lack of consensus and rich diversity of opinions on the topic. Reasons for colonizing Mars include pure curiosity, the potential for humans to provide more in-depth observational research than unmanned rovers, economic interest in its resources, and the possibility that the settlement of other planets could decrease the likelihood of human extinction. O'Neill, "The High Frontier," William Morrow and Co. New York, 1977. Yet their consistency shows a persistent blind spot among policy making groups as to the true sources of wealth and power. On Mars, even during the base building phase, large inflatable greenhouses made of transparent plastic protected by thin hard-plastic ultra-violet and abrasion resistant geodesic domes could be readily deployed, rapidly creating large domains for crop growth. NASA warns people that a human mission to Mars will be difficult and the potential for disaster is a high. The NEP versions in Table 2 are 10 MWe for delivery from Mars and 30 MWe for delivery from Earth, with each NEP system massing 5 tonnes/MW. Depends on your wage bracket. R. Zubrin and D. Andrews, "Magnetic Sails and Interplanetary Travel," Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol 28, No. At this rate, the creation of habitable land by the mass production and erection of large numbers of domes to house the waves of immigrants should prove to be one of the biggest businesses on Mars and a major source of income for the colony. For these reasons, as with land speculators on Earth in the past, the owners of open unexplored real-estate on Mars will exercise all their influence to further the exploration of, and encourage the settlement of land under their control. Simply this, because of the small size of the Martian population and the large transport cost itself, it is certain that the cost of labor on Mars will be much greater than on Earth. space police) on the surface of Mars; the patent or property registry of a sufficiently powerful nation, such as the United States, would be entirely adequate. Improving the quality of life on Earth. Nevertheless, it is my contention that the argument against the feasibility of Mars colonization is flawed by essentially the same false logic and lack of understanding of real economics that resulted in repeated absurd misevaluations of the value of colonial settlements (as opposed to trading posts, plantations, and other extractive activities) on the part of numerous European government ministries during the 400 years following Columbus. 1. In 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte sold a third of what is now the United States for 2 million dollars. How much unemployment is there? Mars is a place where humans can live and multiply to large numbers, supporting themselves with products of every description made out of indigenous materials. If agriculture only areas are desired, the domes could be made much bigger, as plants do not require more than about 1 psi atmospheric pressure. If it were desired to increase the power rating of the Earth-based NEP vessel so that its burn time were the same as the Mars-based system, the mass of the Earth-based mission would go to infinity. As human beings, the only home we have ever known is planet Earth. We have examined the potential of relatively near-term types of interplanetary transportation systems, and shown that with very modest advances on a historical scale, systems can be put in place that will allow individuals and families to emigrate to Mars at their own discretion. Is it safe? By habitable real-estate I mean that which is under a dome, allowing human settlers to live there in a relatively conventional shirt-sleeve open-air environment. So there are slower-downers in the whole program of going to Mars that a lot of people that have read my books or have the dream from some independent source, they don’t want to acknowledge. It’s actually very hard to land softly on Mars, and we only have about a 50 percent success rate with our robots. All logistics … While the initial exploration phase can be accomplished with small crews (of about 4 members each) operating out of Spartan base camps spread over bast areas of the Martian surface, the base building phase will require a division of labor entailing a larger number of people (on the order of 50), equipped with a wide variety of equipment and substantial sources of power. For example a single square kilometer of cropland on Earth is illuminated with about 1000 MW of sunlight at noon; a power load equal to an American city of 1 million people. In 1867 the Czar sold off Alaska for a similar pittance. These pieces of short-sighted statecraft, almost incomprehensible in their stupidity, are legendary today. 1, Fall 1992, pp 25-80, 3. From the 17th through 19th centuries the classic pattern was for a family in Europe to pool it's resources to allow one of its members to emigrate to America. The economics of colonizing Mars . The former would allow nations to hold legal jurisdiction and exclusive rights to economic benefits derived from a parcel of land, whereas the latter would enable protection of areas of natural, ecological, scientific or cultural significance for the benefit of global community. Moreover, on Mars, as on Earth, hydrologic and volcanic processes have occurred, which is likely to have concentrated various elements into local concentrations of high-grade mineral ore. Mars is thus a place where an actual civilization, not just a mining or scientific outpost, can be developed. A similar triangle trade involving Britain, Australia, and the Spice Islands also supported British trade in the East Indies during the 19th Century. 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