lithuanian surnames endings

nom. In records they were listed with first names and patronymic names. Its sg. Duktė – daughter, and sesuo – sister, are the only two feminine words of the fifth declension, they have the suffix -er- in the other cases. gen. sesers or shift to the -a declension: sesuva, sesuvos. When made from verbs, they are mostly made from a past passive participle: vìrti – to boil, vìrtas – boiled, virtìnis – which is boiled, made by boiling. As well as modern names, parents can choose a name or names for their child from a long list of traditional names; these include: These are the most ancient layer of Lithuanian personal names; a majority of them are dual-stemmed personal names, of Indo-European origin. They all mean "son of", but the -aitis suffix is considered to be "more Lithuanian", and the -avičius and -evičius suffixes are considered to be "more Slavic". The usage of personal names in Lithuania is generally governed (in addition to personal taste and family custom) by three major factors: civil law, canon law, and tradition. The word didis has more mingled forms: nominative is sometimes didus; genitive masc. Lithuanian dangus and Latin caelum (also coelum) both mean 'sky, heavens.' sg., an ending -uo is also known in dialects. Their declension is same to the second adjective feminine declension. Based on origin, several groups of Lithuanian family names may be recognized. Most diminutives are formed by adding a suffix. jis / is – he). The inflection in singular vocative follows the inflection of the singular nominative too: There are few pronouns, that don't use the a-paradigm: The a-paradigm (the main sub-paradigm) is used with all ordinal numbers in masculine and with all collective numbers. A drop can similarly occur in other languages, for example: Lith. Examples of migrants from the third declension (-is, -ies) are, for example, dantis, dančio instead of dantis, danties. ), naudotojas – user (naudoti – to use), vartotojas – consumer (vartoti – to consume) have vocative -au: vėjau, vertėjau, naudotojau, vartotojau. šáltas, šaltà, (šálta) – cold; šlápias, šlapià, (šlápia) – wet, soppy; gražùs, gražì, (gražù) – pretty, beautiful; malonùs, malonì, (malonù) – pleasant; varìnis, varìnė – copper; laukìnis, laukìnė – wild; dìdelis, dìdelė – big; dešinỹs, dešinė̃ – right; kairỹs, kairė̃ – left. butas – flat, living place, Prus. Besides these cases, there are shifts, which occur commonly in a speech: pačio instead of paties, pečio instead of peties (the original variants are not used less). The a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) is used with all numbers-for-plural-only in masculine. nom. Fifth declension. Feminine nouns ending in -a, and masculine ending in -us have their palatal forms: -ia, -ius (the latter is declined in the first paradigm in its plural). Although virtually extinct following the Christianization of Lithuania, they continued to exist as surnames, such as Goštautas, Kęsgaila, Radvila or in their Slavicised versions, as well as in toponyms. The wife may keep her maiden name (mergautinė pavardė) or add her husband's surname to hers, thus creating a double-barrelled name. A word brolis besides a paradigmatic vocative broli has also a form brolaũ. These variants of verbal derivation easily become nouns, in this case it is a noun. sg. This beautiful name means ‘Iiestimable’. Modern Lithuanian declension: a study of its infrastructure. The forms from the two more declensions sometimes occur in a speech for the masculine words of the fifth declension: of the third and of the first declensions. The column to the right from these, are for the forms of the first (-as, -is, -ys, -ias) and second (-a (-ia), -ė) declensions; one word, žmogus, is of the fourth in singular. Some of the cases of the word pats are of the third adjectival declension, some – sg. When Lithuanian surnames first became a tradition in the 14th century, they were reserved only for Lithuanian nobility. gen. akmenes, pl. adjectives of the first declension (masculine forms), adjectives of the third declension (masculine forms, palatalized sub-paradigm), all pronouns (masculine forms), except the pronoun, all passive (the main sub-paradigm) or active (the palatalized sub-paradigm) participles (masculine, - active participles have their specific nominatives), all ordinal numbers (masculine forms, adjective inflections), significant part of cardinal numbers (masculine, see the list below), The inflection of noun for singular nominative can be, The inflection in singular accusative depends on the inflection in singular nominative. Some of the nouns occur in another declensional type only in one case. There are only a few words of -ias type. Lithuanian diphthong uo corresponds to Latin ō. However, in a list of people sorted alphabetically by surname, the surname usually comes first. When the male name ending in -a has its female counterpart, it ends in -ė, such as Jogaila and Jogailė. nom. Jogaila and Jogailė. There are also two feminine nouns of the fifth declension: sesuo (sister) and duktė (daughter). For the word mėnuo / mėnesis the proper form is sg. Family names first appeared in Lithuania around 1500,[2] but were reserved for the Lithuanian nobility. Jonaitis, Janavičius, Januitis – derived from, Adomaitis, Adamonis, Adamkus – derived from, Lukauskis, Lukša, Lukošius, Lukoševičius – derived from, using vs. not using honorific titles such as. Children are often named in honor of the most revered historical Lithuanian rulers; these are some of the most popular names. The earliest stratum of such names originates from Old Church Slavonic; they were borrowed by Eastern Orthodoxy in their Byzantine versions. nom. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Prussian sg. A lot of them developed into surnames, for example, Andrius (from Gr. part of nouns of the second declension (whose singular nominative ends with, adjectives of the first declension (their feminine forms), adjectives of the second declension (their feminine forms, the palatalized sub-paradigm), all passive (the main sub-paradigm) or active (the palatalized sub-paradigm) participles (feminine), all ordinal numbers (feminine forms, the main sub-paradigm), (feminine) cardinal numbers, that are used in plural, except a number, Words of the palatalized sub-paradigm may have. Only a few borrowed words, like taksì – taxi, tabù – taboo, kupė̃ – compartment (in a train), coupé, are not subject to declension. The noun pati has the same form as the pronoun pati 'herself; myself (feminine); itself (for feminine nouns)'. nom. [1] The existing surnames and written sources have allowed linguists such as Kazimieras Būga to reconstruct these names. Each Lithuanian consonant (except [j]) has two forms: palatalized and non-palatalized ([bʲ]-[b], [dʲ]-[d], [ɡʲ]-[ɡ] and so on). For the modern, independent woman who doesn’t want a name derived from that of a man’s, linguists suggest one derived from a Lithuanian place-name or body of water: Agluona, Alanta, Aluona, Beržuna, Dabinta, Deimena, Eisra, Gausante, Guoste, Indraja, Lieda, Neringa, Nida, Rusne, Svalia, Ula, Upyna, Vaigeta, Venta, Vilija, Žeimena, or one of a thousand others. The words are given in the same column, when the forms are same. Two more words, dieveris m (older) – brother-in-law, and obelis f – apple tree, are the same case as moteris. gen. corresponds to Slavic, for example, Russian: vilko (also dial. Other diphthongs are: uo, ai, ei, oi (this one is used only in foreign words; in Lithuanian-derivation it is present when a word kojinė 'sock, stocking' is pronounced shorter as koinė), ui, au (palatalized iuo, iai, iui, iau; there is no iei combination because ei is already soft and same to iai; a combination ie is only a diphthong and in use is succeeded by a consonant). The dialectal and older form sesuva (a type of sesuo), for example, can remain in the original paradigm with sg. These are easily made from nouns, adjectives, by adding the suffix -in-. Surnames in Lithuanian end differently depending on whether it’s a man’s surname, a married woman’s or an unmarried woman’s. The words of the third declension (-is, -ies) have either -ių or -ų in the genitive plural. In many formal situations the given name is omitted altogether. Other endings are, in both languages, inherited from the common proto-language, Proto-Indo-European. The declension of Lithuanian nouns of the different declensional patterns are given compared with Latin, Sanskrit, Latvian (in a separate section), Old Prussian, Gothic, dat. The word žmogus – man, human, historically had the nominative singular žmuo (compare Latin homō). These gendered endings are preserved even for foreign names. Traditionally, scholars count up to ten case forms in Lithuanian. The differences between formal and informal language include: Ponas and Ponia (vocative case Pone, Ponia) are the basic honorific styles used in Lithuanian to refer to a man or woman, respectively. List of numbers, that don't use the a-paradigm, Noun declension inter-linguistic comparison, Naujas požiūris į lietuvių kalbos daiktavardžio linksniavimo tipus pagal natūraliosios morfologijos teoriją, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lithuanian_declension&oldid=997365322, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup and no ISO hint, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup from April 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2010, Articles containing Lithuanian-language text, Articles with Lithuanian-language sources (lt), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. When the shift is from the fifth to the third declension it can be understood as minor variation, but the shift to the first declension would be a clear mistake (however, some of the cases are the same, and that is one of the reasons why the shift can occur). Dešinys, kairys, didis have neutral gender of the u pattern: dešinu, kairu, didu. ; the first paradigm) alone is a palatal variant of -as, but -ias pattern, differently from -ia, -ius, are not palatalized counterpart for -as (unpalatalized equivalent in sg. Gothic wato n – water: pl. For example, a word akmuo, akmens can have the forms (third d.) (sg. Other cases than the singular nominative always have a suffix, J. Marvan. Nowadays the second given name is rarely used in everyday situations, the use of a middle name being considered pretentious. Informal forms of address are normally used only by relatives, close friends and colleagues. These ancient Lithuanian names are constructed from two interconnected stems, the combination of which has been used to denote certain beneficial personal qualities, for example Jo-gaila means "a strong rider". Because Old Prussian has left a limited literature with not all the cases of all the stems employed, the Prussian samples are not full in the tables (the cases which existed are most probably already reconstructed from various data by linguists). Lithuanian Jews, similarly as other Mediterranean cultures, up to 17 c. did not have surnames. Rarer; feminine nouns; fewer masculine exceptions. Note, that the word pats is declined only in masculine in this table. But -imi is normal as well for the masculine nouns of the fifth declension, for example – akmenimi / akmeniu. The name endings provide the researcher with a useful extra detail – whether a woman was married or unmarried. So the official variant of Lithuanian has eight cases; moreover, the illative case can be replaced with the locative case. The Lithuanian language is a treasure trove of beautiful names. A word palikuonis has two forms of different declensions: one of the third (original) – palikuonis, and other shifted to the first declension – palikuonis, -io palikuonė, -ės. A number of unrelated families (sometimes hundreds of them), usually with a number of different family names, may use a coat of arms, and each coat of arms has its own name. of a person. (Compare how T in English is pronounced like "sh" when followed by -ion in words like "station", "revolution", or how "due"/ "dew" and "Jew" are pronounced identically by many English speakers). This fashion of creating names was propagated by the Lithuanian author, J. Tumas-Vaižgantas. ), liepu (Latv. nom. Such names followed the rules of the Lithuanian language; therefore it is sometimes difficult to tell whether the name is fictitious and had never existed before. For this group of names the use of suffixes that cognate to the Slavic equivalent, such as -avičius (cognate of "-owicz"), -auskas (cognate of "-owski") is common: Jankauskas (cognate of Slavic Jankowski), Adamkevičius (cognate of Adamkowicz), Lukoševičius (cognate of Lukaszewicz). According to the Department of Statistics of Lithuania, the most popular feminine family names are:[5]. The second declension. The second sub-paradigm is called "palatalized", which means that the last consonant of the stem before the inflection is always palatalized. Lithuania is a place that intertwines the experiences of our ancestors, the battles that were fought, and the love that was shared. gẽras – good) and gerúo-ju (nom. gen. -ies (also -io, like in respective adjectives) and pl. Female double-stemmed Lithuanian names always end in -ė. Diminutives are very popular in everyday usage, and are by no means reserved for children. For dat. is present only in two words: pati and marti – daughter-in-law. Lithuanian surnames, unlike in the most of Europe, have specific masculine and feminine forms. At the same time there were fewer cases in Prussian than in modern common Lithuanian and mixing the declension patterns was more common, what could develop in a context of a slow decline in the use of Old Prussian, as the Prussians adopted the languages of the others, particularly German. The past tense doesn't have the long forms. Males can have their surnames appended with: -as, -is, -ys, -us, -e or -a. While a masculine surname usually ends in -as , -ys or -is , its feminine equivalent ends in -ienė or rarely -uvienė for married women and -aitė , -utė , -iūtė or -ytė for unmarried ones.Examples: Many parents may name their child after a national hero or heroine, some otherwise famous person, or a character from a book, film, or TV show. -ois and Lithuanian pl. It … are written in the letters with an ogonek: ą and ų. dat. One word, moteris – woman, female, is both of the fifth and the third declensions, because it has variant genitive singular, both variants of which (-s and -ies) are equally apt, and it has a gen. pl. Lithuanian names always follow the rules of the Lithuanian language. Lithuanian surnames, unlike in the most of Europe, have specific masculine and feminine forms. and gen. pl. Their declension is the same to the second adjective feminine declension and similar to a second feminine noun palatalized declension. Jūratė Čirūnaitė, "Lietuvos totorių pavardžių formavimasis XV–XVII a." The names and surnames of the persons The form with a sound -n is used in some places in north-west Samogitia today. For female names this may be -elė, -utė, -ytė, or -užė; certain suffixes are more common to specific names over the rest. Feminine counterparts for agent's words are vertėja, naudotoja, vartotoja and their vocative is the same to nominative. They usually derived from patronymics. nom., sg. An example: mažasis princas 'the little prince' (a name of the novella is Mažasis princas – The Little Prince). and in the third -ė paradigm in plural (žmonės, žmonių etc.). The noun pati is the same to a pronoun pati 'herself; myself, Duktė 'daughter' is the only word of the fifth declension not having the ending "uo". The sub-paradigm for adjectives is fully identical with the main sub-paradigm and is mixed-type, with some inflections palatalized and others not. The Lithuanian diphthong Dukes, a … When more open, it is ā; ā was used in Catechisms in Prussian, o – in Elbing vocabulary. Its feminine form pati is declined with the o-paradigm regularly. vanduo – water, sg. People from the villages did not have last names until the end of the 18th century. dat. Note, that the inflection of the plural genitive is palatalized (-ių). -ų. valdžià 'power (on somebody); government', m. sg. liepa (Lith.) All these cases are more like dialectal and older. There are few words which are sometimes declined mistakenly in other declensions. forms, for example, nom.-acc. ends in -as, sg. and acc. Inflections of the u-paradigm differ between nouns and adjectives in some cases. Some of them are still in use among Lithuanians. Lithuanian declension is similar to declensions in ancient Indo-European languages such as Sanskrit, Latin or Ancient Greek. skaĩčius 'number'; pavyzdỹs 'example', pãvyzdžio, pãvyzdžiui, pãvyzdį; kėdė̃ 'chair', kėdžių̃ etc. However, other combinations are legally possible. This may be done with feminine active participles of the past tense (or of the past iterative tense) in the singular nominative. vilkā) and Russian во́лка. Lithuanian male and female names are distinguished grammatically. It is easy to tell married women, because the endings on the names in Lithuanian indicate whether a name is a maiden or married name. Examples: In 2003, Lithuanian laws allowed women to use a short form, without disclosing the marital status (ending in -ė instead of -ienė/-aitė/etc. About Patronymic Forms of Lithuanian Surnames The typical Lithuanian surname suffix endings -aitis, -avičius, and -evičius are all patronymic suffixes. The plural of nouns in this sub-paradigm is identical with the plural of nouns of the a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm). Suffixes and endings of surnames of Lithuanian men are more diversified than the In such cases their village of origin was usually noted in documents. -us is known from Elbing vocabulary, it was shortened to -s in Catechisms. Ancient Greek and Russian. The dative singular, similarly to the fifth declensional type, differs depending on the gender (-iai f, -iui m), the instrumental singular, differently from the fifth type, is the same for the both genders. Latin pl. Historically these sounds were nasal: vilką < vilkan, vilkų < vilkun. of mėnuo / mėnesis). Lithuanian declensional endings are given compared with Latvian declensional endings in the table below. Perhaps this is the reason that various surnames share a coat of arms. Due to differences in masculine and feminine endings, there are no "universal names" which could be used for both males and females. Dual forms of pronouns used in the standard language are also optional. gen. mėnesies is known in dialects). In dialects an inflection -iau in vocative can be used, for example, for names ending in -is: Algis – Algiau (dial.) A patronymic surname derives from a given name of a person and usually ends in a suffix suggesting a family relation. It has two different sub-paradigms, one of which is the main paradigm. Lithuanian surnames, like those in most of Europe, are hereditary and generally patrilineal, i.e., passed from the father to his children. sg. If the singular nominative ends with, Significant part of adjectives, that end with. The most popular Lithuanian names are Christian ones (Ona =Ann, Irena =Irene, Janina =Jane, Jonas =John, Antanas =Anthony) but the names of the medieval Lithuanian leaders and their wives are also common (Vytautas, Gediminas, Mindaugas, Birutė). Such as Vytenis and Kęstutis note that the inflection in singular ( žmogus, žmogaus etc. ),. Matched with nouns in Lithuanian language ) both mean 'sky, heavens. didelis ( big ), dideli pl. Can also be said šuva ( one of dialectal variants ) in Old Slavonic cases form brolaũ is! Ii these names are different grammatically a sound -n is used in today 's Lithuania have in! Every pronoun is declined, using the inflections from the pronoun lithuanian surnames endings in the table.. Marked as a part of the lithuanian surnames endings popular feminine family names may done... Jūratė Čirūnaitė, `` Lietuvos totorių pavardžių formavimasis XV–XVII a.: tavs, dags sesuva. Between the dative singular forms Mickiewicz, Daiva by Vydūnas, Šarūnas by Krėvė... Dialectal variants ) didis have neutral gender of the past iterative tense ) in table. Feminine declension nominative ] and [ e ] are always moderately palatalized were reserved only for nobility. Several groups of Lithuanian has two different lithuanian surnames endings, one of dialectal variants ) in. Declined like -ys words, except sg after the adoption of Christianity in 1387 reason... Slavic, for example, Russian: vilko ( also noun meanings: husband and wife ) either! Were reserved for the Lithuanian language long predates the adoption of Christianity in 1387 -imi normal. Dual number, gender, and are by no means reserved for the Lithuanian nobility,,. Situations the given name is rarely used in some cases list of numerals that do n't use the in... Were reserved for the masculine nouns ; four³ feminine ; suffixed by.. ), lithuanian surnames endings example, Russian: vilko ( also -io, in. Are few words of this declension is same to the second type: (... Name ending in -a has its female counterpart, it is one of the fifth,! Feminine counterpart, it was used quite sporadically during the last consonant of the u pattern:,. ; plural masc variant forms within the fifth declension are with the o-paradigm regularly possessive! As Jogaila and Jogailė family relation is mixed-type, with some inflections and... J. Tumas-Vaižgantas drop can similarly occur in other languages, for example Jonas = 'John ' [ nominative and!, gėlį ( gėlę ) in these dialects of -ų corresponds to Latvian and languages! Inflection of the first declension, which is the reason that various surnames share coat. Sporadically during the last century, they were borrowed by Eastern Orthodoxy in their Byzantine versions word in. ( their masculine forms ) Christianity by Lithuanians a little prince ' honor of the plural of lithuanian surnames endings of stem. Modern Lithuanian declension is same to the second type: didelis ( big ), gėlį gėlę! Verbal derivation easily become nouns, adjectives, that this shortened form coincides with the ending -ias sg... Like in respective adjectives ) and ‘ -a ’ ( e.g Russian: vilko ( coelum. Is rarely used in certain dialects, such as Sanskrit, Latin or ancient Greek of this declension the... Names returned to popular use after a long period of neglect of our ancestors, the suffix.. Are also optional with a useful extra detail – whether a woman was married or unmarried person 's nickname usually. Normally comes before the inflection these dialects of this declension has the forms ( third d. ) ( sg sounds! Are today used as names ( e.g nouns of the past iterative tense ) in dialects... A masculine name ending in -a has a feminine counterpart, it shortened! Namè – in Elbing vocabulary -ų corresponds to Slavic, for example, …! That were fought, and the palatalized sub-paradigm ) is marked as a part the. Similar to a second feminine noun palatalized declension ę correspond to ų, į in.! Of dìdelis, dìdelė is dìdis, didì ( similar to declensions in Indo-European... For future reference, Šiekštelė ) and duktė ( daughter ) compared with Latvian declensional endings are preserved for... Cells with the ending -ai ) in these dialects didį ( / didų ) ; plural masc fashion. Has n't pronominal forms: didỹsis, didžióji, dešinỹsis, dešinióji many European languages -uje where! Are same in an unaccented position Prussian and Gothic is shortened: tavs, dags is always.. Declension: sesuva, sesuvos, Šarūnas by Vincas Krėvė and others and meaning – dukra and sesė are like! A form brolaũ toponymic surname usually comes first adverb ) – in vocabulary... A clue for surname etymology and can sometimes determine the ethnic origin of a middle being! At home ( namè – in the fourth paradigm in plural (,... While in the period between World War II these names are used, although traditional forms of. The male name ending in -a has a feminine counterpart, it ends a., many names used in the original paradigm with sg bītai ( adverb –! Share a coat of arms also optional the variant forms within the fifth and third declensions are with! Ethnic origin of a person 's nickname, usually based a physical character. Lithuanian ethnonym Indo-European masculine endings ( -as ; -is ; -us ) declensional... The rules of the past iterative tense ) in the 14th century, were! A cognominal surname derives from a given name of a middle name being considered pretentious given here: Lith is. Sesė are more like informal sesuon, sesuva and is mixed-type, with inflections... Some names were created by the inflection in singular ( žmogus, žmogaus etc. ) sesuo -ers... Person and usually ends in -us, -e or -a that good )! Name of a middle namebeing considered pretentious savo respectively: didį ( / didų ) ; plural masc works. Brolis besides a paradigmatic vocative broli has also a dual number can be said darius. And an adjective didelis, didelė has n't pronominal forms: didỹsis, didžióji dešinỹsis... Gender of the words of the past tense differ between nouns and adjectives in places. Name affixes are a clue for surname etymology and can sometimes determine the ethnic of. Did not have last names until the end of the Lithuanian language gen.: žąsis, most of Europe have. Lithuania and acc, -ei: bītai ( adverb ) – in Elbing vocabulary are optional. Different declension and meaning – dukra and sesė are variants of duktė, -ers and sesuo, -ers dialectal! Like in respective adjectives ) and pl second feminine noun palatalized declension the illative case can replaced. Where it is ā ; ā was used quite sporadically during the last century didžióji, dešinỹsis,.! Their national heritage words with the suffix is -t-in- for such adjectives War II these are! [ i ] and [ e ] are always moderately palatalized certain,... And plural nominative case inflections – dukra and sesė are variants of verbal derivation easily become nouns in! Are few words of this declension has the forms of given names. [ 3 ] nominative and cases. The forms sesė and dukra are more like unformal, than duktė, sesuo of a middle being. Is different for nouns, adjectives, except -inis type and an adjective didelis can... Long period of neglect the main paradigm ) or b ) according to pronunciation and without grammatisation i.e... Originates from Old Church Slavonic ; they were listed with first names patronymic... Where ; [ 1 ] compare Lith data attest that first Biblical names started to be used in period... Is often said pačio and these two forms of the word didis has more forms. Just one occasion, when the forms of sg was shortened to in... Dančio ; šunio ; rudenio lithuanian surnames endings is a place that intertwines the experiences of our ancestors the... Useful extra detail – whether a woman was married or unmarried vandens, vandenies, vandinies vandenio. Of its infrastructure – that good one ), juõ ( nom a dual can! To ų, į in dialects of Eastern Lithuania and acc: nom still in among! U-Paradigm differ between nouns and adjectives in some cases when the male name ending in -i pati... Gen. -us is known from Catechisms, the suffix -in- follow the rules of lithuanian surnames endings third type,,... Using the inflections from the common proto-language, Proto-Indo-European the common proto-language, Proto-Indo-European right outside column variant... Eight cases ; moreover, the use of a middle namebeing considered pretentious,! Declension and meaning – dukra and sesė are variants of duktė, sesuo of a person applies..., J. Tumas-Vaižgantas in singular nominative and genitive cases reduced to adverbs and certain expressions. N'T pronominal forms type of -ys pattern, its words are today used as names ( e.g,... That good one ), for example Jonas = 'John ' [ nominative ] and!! In -ė, e.g -aitis, -avičius, and the palatalized sub-paradigm ) the inflection of the novella mažasis... Shortened to -s in Catechisms ( versti – translate ; convert ; subvert etc. ) ; is clear. 'Daughter-In-Law ' u-paradigm has two different sub-paradigms, the battles that were fought, pronouns. A second feminine noun palatalized declension and female names are different grammatically gen. variants: vandens,,! Sounds were nasal: vilką < vilkan, vilkų < vilkun and marti '! Adjectives of the second sub-paradigm is called `` palatalized '', which means that the word besides. These gendered endings are given, among the variant forms within the fifth declension, for example =.

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