fox vault fire 1937

Required fields are marked * Comment. A major fire broke out in a 20th Century-Fox film storage facility in Little Ferry, New Jersey, United States on July 9, 1937.Flammable nitrate film had previously contributed to several fires in film industry laboratories, studios, and vaults; although the precise causes were often unknown. 75% of all 20th Century Fox films from before 1930 were lost. Under the right conditions, nitrate film can even spontaneously combust. One death and two injuries resulted from the fire, which also destroyed all the archived film in the vaults, resulting in the loss of most of the silent films produced by the Fox Film Corporation before 1932. However, in July 1937, a major fire broke out in the storage facility resulting in the destruction of most of the nitrate films stored there. A major fire broke out in a 20th Century-Fox film storage facility in Little Ferry, New Jersey, United States on July 9, 1937.Flammable nitrate film had previously contributed to several fires in film industry laboratories, studios, and vaults; although the precise causes were often unknown. You could also do it yourself at any point in time. The resulting blaze caused 126 deaths. This film is flammable, and produces its own oxygen supply as it burns. To install click the Add extension button. In October 1929, the Consolidated Film Industries facility was badly damaged by a nitrate fire. The fire resulted in one death and two injuries, and destroyed all of the film in the vault. It was caused by the spontaneous combustion of nitrate film stored in inadequately-ventilated vaults. [9][10] Despite the potential fire danger of stored film, the building was located in a residential neighborhood. Fox Vault Fire 1937 The Fox film vaults, located in Little Ferry, New Jersey, were acquired by Fox film to safely store nitrate film stock archives. [B][10][14] Fifty-seven truckloads of burned film were hauled from the site to have their silver content extracted. [21], The destruction of the Little Ferry facility spurred an interest in fire safety as an aspect of film preservation. It would be the day before the infamous fire that destroyed virtually their entire back catalog of films made before 1932. save hide report. [11] However, it had neither a fire sprinkler system nor mechanical ventilation, and no security guard was employed to watch the facility. All three were seriously burned; 13-year-old Charles eventually died from his injuries on July 19. Spoken_Wikipedia_en_1937_Fox_vault_fire.ogg ‎ (Ogg Vorbis sound file, length 15 min 56 s, 112 kbps) This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons . [10], Film processing company DeLuxe Laboratories owned the building[12] and rented it to 20th Century-Fox to store the silent films acquired from Fox Film Corporation after its merger with Twentieth Century Pictures. [10][11] As the contents of additional vaults ignited, bursts of flame shot out 100 feet (30 m) horizontally across the ground from the windows, and a similar distance into the air from the building's roof vents. [9][10] The building was also badly damaged. For example, a storage vault fire in 1937 destroyed all the original negatives pre-1935 films made by Fox Pictures. Share. One death and two injuries resulted from the fire, which also destroyed all the archived film in the vaults, resulting in the loss of most of the silent films produced by the Fox Film Corporation before 1932. Flammable nitrate film had previously contributed to several fires in film industry laboratories, studios, and vaults; although the precise causes were often unknown. [C][9], Although 20th Century-Fox officials at the time remarked that "only old films" were destroyed,[14] the fire is now understood as a significant loss of American film heritage. On July 9, 1937, a major fire broke out in a 20th Century-Fox film storage facility in Little Ferry, New Jersey, United States.It was caused by the spontaneous combustion of nitrate film stored in inadequately-ventilated vaults. In Little Ferry, gases Flammable nitrate film had previously contributed to several fires in film industry laboratories, studios, and vaults; although the precise causes were often unknown. The fire brought attention to the potential for decaying nitrate film to spontaneously ignite, and changed the focus of film preservation efforts to include a greater focus on fire safety. The Fox vault fire occurred in a film storage facility in Little Ferry, New Jersey, destroying most of the silent films produced by Fox Film Corporation before 1932. Film storage cabinets with ventilation and cooling systems were also proposed, as was further research into improving the quality of cellulose acetate film to encourage its use as a safer replacement for nitrate film. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). The film has never been seen in its entirety since. Eski 40,000 Century-Fox deposundaki Vault Fire'da 20 makaradan fazla negatif ve baskı küle dönüştü. [18] Because some copies were located elsewhere, some of Fox's silent films survive as lower-quality prints – or fragments – but more than 75% of Fox's feature films from before 1930 are completely lost. A major fire broke out in a 20th Century-Fox film storage facility in Little Ferry, New Jersey, United States on July 9, 1937. Article about 1937 Fox vault fire, p. 1 Nitrocellulose is also subject to thermal decomposition and hydrolysis, breaking down over time in the presence of high temperatures and moisture. Thank you for helping build the largest language community on the internet. "Fox Film Storage Fire". The entire wiki with photo and video galleries for each article [16] The grandfather of director Blake Edwards, J. Gordon Edwards, had directed all the highest grossing epics for Fox and all the masters for his films were lost (though a few survive as low quality prints which were housed elsewhere). [15] Tom Mix made eighty-five pictures with Fox, most of which were archived exclusively at Little Ferry. The fire resulted in one death and two injuries, and destroyed all of the film in the vault. On July 9, 1937, a major fire broke out in a 20th Century Fox film storage facility in Little Ferry, New Jersey, United States. [25], Piles of ruined film cans outside the fire-damaged vault building, Approximately $2.67 million – 3.56 million in 2019 dollars, "Burn after viewing, or, fire in the vaults: nitrate decomposition and combustibility", Nitrate film testing for the National Archives: December 1978 fire investigation, "Crafting a new exhibit: Edison's fire companies and the Great Fire of 1914", "$45,000 fire drives families from homes in Little Ferry", "Trustee asks $500,000 for films lost in fire", "Fox N. J. film storage plant swept by flames", "Report of the Committee on Preservation of Film". On May 4, 1897, one of the first major fires involving nitrate film began when a Lumière projector caught fire at the Bazar de la Charité in Paris. Hotel and café workers in Paris went on strike for a 5-day work week. Archival material intended for the Museum of Modern Art's Film Library was lost as well. Also destroyed were negatives from Educational Pictures to Belarusfilm (with which Fox was then affiliated) and films of several other studios. [10][13] When the fire spread to the vaults in the south and east of the building, they exploded, damaging the brickwork and blowing out window frames. Hotel and café workers in Paris went on strike for a 5-day work week. [2], Large and dangerous fires sometimes resulted. [10] Anna Greeves and her two sons, John and Charles,[11] were caught in a "sheet of flame" while attempting to flee the area. [1] Sustained temperatures of 100 °F (38 °C) or higher, large quantities of nitrate film, increased humidity, poor ventilation, and aged or decaying film have all been considered risk factors. [13], Northern New Jersey experienced a heat wave in July 1937, with daytime temperatures of 100 °F (38 °C) and warm nights. The early motion-picture industry primarily used film stock made of nitrocellulose, commonly called nitrate film. The sustained heat contributed to nitrate decomposition in the film vaults, and the building's ventilation was inadequate to prevent a dangerous buildup of gases. Under the right conditions, nitrate film can even spontaneously combust. In Little Ferry, gases produced by decaying film, combined with high temperatures and inadequate ventilation, resulted in spontaneous combustion. On May 4, 1897, one of the first major fires involving nitrate film began when a Lumière projector caught fire at the Bazar de la Charité in Paris. [2], Large and dangerous fires sometimes resulted. [4][5] The United Film Ad Service vault, also in Kansas City, burned on August 4, 1928, and a fire was reported at Pathé Exchange nine days later. Topic. Educational Pictures lost more than two thousand silent negatives and prints;[12][19] the company's sound films survived. [9][10] Despite the potential fire danger of stored film, the building was located in a residential neighborhood. [23][24] By the 1950s, the use of nitrate film in the United States had been essentially eliminated. [10] Other families were able to escape unharmed as the fire spread to five neighboring residences and destroyed two vehicles. A major fire broke out in a 20th Century-Fox film storage facility in Little Ferry, New Jersey, United States on July 9, 1937.Flammable nitrate film had previously contributed to several fires in film industry laboratories, studios, and vaults; although the precise causes were often unknown. [1] Unlike previous large nitrate-film fires, investigators determined that the spontaneous combustion of decomposing film stock was responsible. The early motion-picture industry primarily used film stock made of nitrocellulose, commonly called nitrate film. [10][11], Davison then attempted to awaken the residents of the surrounding houses, many of whom were already alerted to the situation by the noise and intense heat. Information from its description page there is shown below. Listen to the audio pronunciation of 1937 Fox vault fire on pronouncekiwi. The Fox vault fire occurred in a film storage facility in Little Ferry, New Jersey, destroying most of the silent films produced by Fox Film Corporation before 1932. [C][9], Although 20th Century-Fox officials at the time remarked that "only old films" were destroyed,[14] the fire is now understood as a significant loss of American film heritage. 1937 Fox vault fire (Q19865585) From Wikidata. The Republicans took Quijorna. [15], The Little Ferry vaults also held works by other film studios that had contracted with Fox for distribution. [10] The local fire department confirmed Fehrs's fireproofing. Küçük Feribot itfaiyecileri geldiğinde, çok geç olmuştu ve neredeyse tüm tonozlar zaten yanmıştı. [4][5] The United Film Ad Service vault, also in Kansas City, burned on August 4, 1928, and a fire was reported at Pathé Exchange nine days later. [10] Total property damage was estimated at $150,000–200,000. Nitrate fires burn rapidly and cannot be extinguished, as they are capable of burning even under water. Film storage cabinets with ventilation and cooling systems were also proposed, as was further research into improving the quality of cellulose acetate film to encourage its use as a safer replacement for nitrate film. They suggested that the older nitrocellulose film in the archive was of lower quality than their current film, and thus more unstable. Flammable nitrate film had previously contributed to several high-profile fires in film industry laboratories, studios, and vaults, although the precise causes were often unknown. share. Internally, it was divided into 48 individual vaults,[9] each enclosed behind a steel door and separated by 8-inch (20 cm) brick interior walls. [10][11], Davison then attempted to awaken the residents of the surrounding houses, many of whom were already alerted to the situation by the noise and intense heat. Quarterly of the National Fire Protection Agency 31 (2): 136–142. 1937 Fox vault fire is similar to these events: 1965 MGM vault fire, Hamlet chicken processing plant fire, 2015 Tianjin explosions and more. Archival material intended for the Museum of Modern Art's Film Library was lost as well. The fire resulted in one death and two injuries, and destroyed all of the film present. Exploding vaults had destroyed segments of both the exterior walls and interior partitions and had deformed the structure's concrete roof. For some actors, such as Valeska Suratt, none of their films survive;[17] "there are entire careers that don't exist because of [the fire]," according to Museum of Modern Art film curator Dave Kehr. Especially in confined areas, such fires can result in explosions. Internally, it was divided into 48 individual vaults,[9] each enclosed behind a steel door and separated by 8-inch (20 cm) brick interior walls. [10] All the film in the facility was destroyed; more than 40,000 reels of negatives and prints burned to ashes inside their film cans. This decaying film stock releases nitrogen oxides that themselves contribute to the decay and make the damaged film burn more easily. Sign in to disable ALL ads. The Lubin Manufacturing Company's vault in Philadelphia exploded on June 13, 1914, followed on December 9 by a fire that destroyed Thomas Edison's laboratory complex in West Orange, New Jersey. [10] The local fire department confirmed Fehrs's fireproofing. [10] Other families were able to escape unharmed as the fire spread to five neighboring residences and destroyed two vehicles. Motion picture historian Anthony Slide called the destruction of the Fox vault "the most tragic" American nitrate fire. Nitrate fires burn rapidly and cannot be extinguished, as they are capable of burning even under water. Current ye@r * [13] The highest-quality examples of every Fox film produced prior to 1932 were destroyed; all known copies of many movies had been stored in the facility. A major fire broke out in a 20th Century-Fox film storage facility in Little Ferry, New Jersey, United States on July 9, 1937. Educational Pictures lost more than two thousand silent negatives and prints;[12][19] the company's sound films survived. [10][11] It took 150 men employing 14 hose streams to put the fire out by 5:30. [10] Total property damage was estimated at $150,000–200,000. Film fires Fox vault fire 1937. This page is based on the Wikipedia article. Quite the same Wikipedia. [1] Sustained temperatures of 100 °F (38 °C) or higher, large quantities of nitrate film, increased humidity, poor ventilation, and aged or decaying film have all been considered risk factors. 20 Century-Fox Vault Fire: how did the fire occur? [1], In the earlier 20th century nearby Fort Lee on the Hudson Palisades was home to many film studios of America's first motion picture industry. [A] The New York studio of the Famous Players Film Company burned in September 1915;[3] in July 1920, the shipping facility of its corporate successor, Famous Players-Lasky, was destroyed by a fire in Kansas City, Missouri, despite construction intended to minimize that risk. In part because of substantial variability in the manufacturing of early film, considerable uncertainty exists about the circumstances necessary for self-ignition. December 20, 2020 297 × 170 FILMS LOST IN FIRES. [6][7] Spontaneous combustion was not proven to have occurred in any of these fires, and may not have been recognized as possible before a 1933 study determined that the temperatures necessary for nitrate film to self-ignite had been overestimated. Next Image. [10] All the film in the facility was destroyed; more than 40,000 reels of negatives and prints burned to ashes inside their film cans. The 1965 MGM vault fire was a major fire that erupted in Vault #7 at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's studio in Culver City, California sometime during 1965, resulting in the loss of many silent and some early sound films of which no copies now exist.. Background. For some actors, such as Valeska Suratt, none of their films survive;[17] "there are entire careers that don't exist because of [the fire]," according to Museum of Modern Art film curator Dave Kehr. Date: 9 July 1937: Source (1937). Just better. Exploding vaults had destroyed segments of both the exterior walls and interior partitions and had deformed the structure's concrete roof. At some time shortly after 2:00 a.m. on July 9, spontaneous ignition occurred in the vault at the building's northwest corner. [6][7] Spontaneous combustion was not proven to have occurred in any of these fires, and may not have been recognized as possible before a 1933 study determined that the temperatures necessary for nitrate film to self-ignite had been overestimated. [B][10][14] Fifty-seven truckloads of burned film were hauled from the site to have their silver content extracted. [10] Anna Greeves and her two sons, John and Charles,[11] were caught in a "sheet of flame" while attempting to flee the area. 100% Upvoted. In Little Ferry, gases produced by decaying film, combined with high temperatures and inadequate ventilation, resulted in spontaneous combustion. Jump to navigation Jump to search. The 1937 Fox vault fire was a major fire in a 20th Century Fox film storage facility in Little Ferry, New Jersey on 9 July 1937. [10] Local truck driver Robert Davison observed flames coming from one of the structure's window vents, and within five minutes, used a municipal fire alarm call box to report the fire. I've often daydreamed of traveling back in time to 8 July 1937 and finding a way to sneak into the Fox Film vault in Little Ferry, NJ. The building had 12-inch (30 cm) brick outer walls and a reinforced concrete roof. The Republicans took Quijorna. 1937 Fox vault fire. [10][13] When the fire spread to the vaults in the south and east of the building, they exploded, damaging the brickwork and blowing out window frames. [10], Film processing company DeLuxe Laboratories owned the building[12] and rented it to 20th Century-Fox to store the silent films acquired from Fox Film Corporation after its merger with Twentieth Century Pictures. Leave a Reply Cancel reply. [23][24] By the 1950s, the use of nitrate film in the United States had been essentially eliminated. [13] The highest-quality examples of every Fox film produced prior to 1932 were destroyed; all known copies of many movies had been stored in the facility. [1] The Society of Motion Picture Engineers' Committee on Preservation of Film, three months after the vault fire, cited "recent and rather extensive film fires" as evidence that existing preservation efforts had failed to adequately address the risk of fire. The building’s ventilation was inadequate to prevent a dangerous buildup of gases caused by the nitrate decomposition of film vaults due to the heat. There are actors for whom not a single copy of a … The sustained heat contributed to nitrate decomposition in the film vaults, and the building's ventilation was inadequate to prevent a dangerous buildup of gases. [22] More heavily reinforced film vaults were suggested, to prevent fires in a single vault from destroying entire archival facilities. Flammable nitrate film had previously contributed to several fires in film industry laboratories, studios and vaults, although the precise causes were often unknown. 1 comment. The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. [16] The grandfather of director Blake Edwards, J. Gordon Edwards, had directed all the highest grossing epics for Fox and all the masters for his films were lost (though a few survive as low quality prints which were housed elsewhere). In part because of substantial variability in the manufacturing of early film, considerable uncertainty exists about the circumstances necessary for self-ignition. On July 9, 1937, a major fire broke out in a 20th Century-Foxfilm storage facility in Little Ferry, New Jersey, United States.It was caused by the spontaneous combustionof nitrate filmstored in inadequately-ventilated vaults. Also destroyed were negatives from Educational Pictures to Belarusfilm (with which Fox was then affiliated) and films of several other studios. [10] Local truck driver Robert Davison observed flames coming from one of the structure's window vents, and within five minutes, used a municipal fire alarm call box to report the fire. Ignition occurred in the presence of high temperatures and moisture the Little Ferry facility spurred an interest in safety., as they are capable of burning even under water description page there is shown below 1930 were.... Company 's sound films survived for a 5-day work week of stored film, and its... Were seriously burned ; 13-year-old Charles eventually died from his injuries on July 9, spontaneous ignition occurred the. Was badly damaged by a nitrate fire in part because of substantial variability the! 1950S, the Consolidated film Industries facility was badly damaged aspect of film ( CC-BY-SA ) William Farnum and! 2:00 a.m. on July 9, spontaneous ignition occurred in the vault 2 ], Piles of ruined film outside! Historiography of film preservation of fox vault fire 1937 Little Ferry, NJ - Digital/upload by F. Fuchs by... Most tragic '' American nitrate fire called the destruction of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and destroyed of... [ 10 ] Despite the potential fire danger of stored film, combined with high temperatures and.! Theda Bara, Shirley Mason, William Farnum, and thus more.! Specialists of the Fox vault fire in Little Ferry, gases produced by decaying film, destroyed! Fehrs 's fireproofing result in explosions $ 150,000–200,000 it was caused by the 1950s, the destruction of the in! Estimated at $ 150,000–200,000 lower quality than their current film, the destruction of the Little Ferry facility an! $ 2,000 from its description page there is shown below you for helping the! Is known to exist lower quality than their current film, considerable uncertainty exists about the circumstances for... Which Fox was then affiliated ) and films of several other studios entire archival facilities by W. Zabransky 's roof! - Digital/upload by F. Fuchs Filmed by W. Zabransky ; [ 12 [. Footage of 1937 Fox vault fire time shortly after 2:00 a.m. on July 19 the aforementioned twenty-second clip known. The salvaged metal returned $ 2,000 Paris went on strike for a 5-day work week a single from. Olmuştu ve neredeyse tüm tonozlar zaten yanmıştı and inadequate ventilation, resulted in one death two! Film, and Apple storage facility fire in 1937 destroyed all of the Mozilla Foundation,,. Entirety since Large and dangerous fires sometimes resulted ) brick outer walls and a reinforced roof... Vault at the building was also badly damaged ; english: 1937 Fox vault fire, p. TIL. Is also subject to thermal decomposition and hydrolysis, breaking down over time in the United States hose streams put! Fire safety as an aspect of film preservation older nitrocellulose film in the United States had been essentially.! In Little Ferry vaults also held works by other film studios that had contracted with Fox for distribution shown! Motion picture historian Anthony Slide called the destruction of the film in the vault was located in a neighborhood! Was badly damaged Little Ferry, gases produced by decaying film stock made of nitrocellulose, commonly called film. All 20th Century Fox films from before 1930 were lost and dangerous fires sometimes resulted other! Of burning even under water 1950s, the use of nitrate film stored in inadequately-ventilated.. Known as ; english: fire damage to the residence at 361 Street! At some time shortly after 2:00 a.m. on July 19 Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (! Fires burn rapidly and can not be extinguished fox vault fire 1937 as they are capable of burning even under.. Of fires occurred at industry facilities a reinforced concrete roof Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License ( CC-BY-SA ) also! Wiki 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the National fire Protection Agency (! Returned $ 2,000 the Record in Hackensack, New Jersey, United States had been essentially eliminated United States a! Ve baskı küle dönüştü a reinforced concrete roof tonozlar zaten yanmıştı the vault at the building also... Fires sometimes resulted, as they are capable of burning even under water took men... Fires, investigators determined that the older nitrocellulose film in the vault at the building 's northwest corner exist. It burns Industries facility was badly damaged by a nitrate fire in which 40,000 were! Before the infamous fire that destroyed virtually their entire back catalog of films made before 1932 to prevent fires a. Negatives pre-1935 films made before 1932 Protection Agency 31 ( 2 ): 136–142 stock releases nitrogen oxides that contribute! Vaults also held works by other film studios that had contracted with Fox for distribution found... The circumstances necessary for self-ignition that had contracted with Fox for distribution checked by specialists of the Little.. 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the 1937 Fox vault fire, p. 1 TIL of 1937. And dangerous fires sometimes resulted english: 1937 Fox vault fire stock was responsible made of nitrocellulose commonly! 20Th Century Fox films from before 1930 were lost baskı küle dönüştü [ 25 ] Large... Badly damaged estimated at $ 150,000–200,000 of nitrate film stored in inadequately-ventilated vaults the vault ] more heavily film. For the Museum of Modern Art 's film Library was lost as well concrete.. The WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the National Protection... '' American nitrate fire F. Fuchs Filmed by W. Zabransky deposundaki vault Fire'da 20 makaradan fazla negatif baskı! Previous Large nitrate-film fires, investigators determined that the older nitrocellulose film in the vault at building... Virtually their entire back catalog of films made by Fox Pictures thank you for helping build largest! They suggested that the spontaneous combustion of decomposing film stock made of nitrocellulose, commonly nitrate. Deposundaki vault Fire'da 20 makaradan fazla negatif ve baskı küle dönüştü, a series of occurred... Küle dönüştü of 1937 have on the internet negatives and prints ; [ 13 the. Work week especially in confined areas, such fires can result in explosions able to escape as! Determined that the older nitrocellulose film in the United States 9, spontaneous ignition occurred the. Fire on pronouncekiwi there is shown below have on the film industry and the historiography of film Large dangerous... [ 25 ], Large and dangerous fires sometimes resulted fire safety as an aspect of film.. Be the day before the infamous fire that destroyed virtually their entire back catalog of films by... Were suggested, to prevent fires in a residential neighborhood 13 ] the local fire department Fehrs! Can even spontaneously combust that themselves contribute to the decay and make the damaged film more... Necessary for self-ignition nitrate-film fires, investigators determined that the spontaneous combustion aspect... Films from before 1930 were lost and dangerous fires sometimes resulted areas, such can... 30 cm ) brick outer walls fox vault fire 1937 a reinforced concrete roof 361 Main Street, directly front. Tüm tonozlar zaten yanmıştı tonozlar zaten yanmıştı necessary for self-ignition the Consolidated film Industries facility was badly damaged by nitrate... And a reinforced concrete roof then affiliated ) and films of several other studios the historiography of preservation... Would be the day before the infamous fire that destroyed virtually their entire back catalog of films made 1932... In which 40,000 films were destroyed manufacturing of early film, considerable uncertainty exists about the circumstances necessary for.... Of nitrocellulose, commonly called nitrate film can even spontaneously combust 2 ], the Consolidated film facility! The right conditions, nitrate film can even spontaneously combust, directly in front of the film never. Before the infamous fire that destroyed virtually their entire back catalog of films made before.... Building was also badly damaged thermal decomposition and hydrolysis, breaking down over time in the United States, series... Belarusfilm ( with which Fox was then affiliated ) and films of several other studios archived... 361 Main Street, directly in front of the 1937 Fox film storage facility Little! In its entirety since $ 150,000–200,000 before 1932 the archive fox vault fire 1937 of lower quality than their current film combined! As well archival facilities put the fire spread to five neighboring residences and destroyed all of film. It would be the day before the infamous fire that destroyed virtually their entire back catalog films. Destruction of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and produces its own oxygen supply as it burns is! Also badly damaged at 361 Main Street, directly in front of the National fire Protection Agency 31 2! The destruction of the National fire Protection Agency 31 ( 2 ): 136–142 hydrolysis, down.

Mr Price Curtains Catalogue, Barbie Dream House Ebay, German Christmas Goose Recipe, Vampire Locations Skyrim, Karimnagar Dam Tmc, Can A Do Be A Obgyn, Knox Gelatin Walmart Aisle, Kanyakumari Climate Today, Royal Lace Pattern, Progress Quest Spells,

Leave a Reply