EIN: 41-0953924. 3. From the 17th through 19th centuries the classic pattern was for a family in Europe to pool it's resources to allow one of its members to emigrate to America. The first benefit is one of the main reasons why Elon Musk believes that we should colonize Mars: it would mark the beginning of extraterrestrial life for human beings. The difficulty of interplanetary travel may make Mars colonization seem visionary. The mission to colonize Mars runs into three major challenges. It is therefore anticipated that human terraformers would accelerate the oxygenation process by artificial technological approaches yet to be determined, with the two leading concepts being those based on either macroengineering (i.e. Potential increases in real-estate values after terraforming will provide a sufficient financial incentive to do so. Why would they want to do so? Plants can stand a drop of perhaps a factor of 5 in their light intake compared to terrestrial norms and still grow, but the fact remains; the energetics of plant growth make it inconceivable to raise crops on any kind of meaningful scale with artificially generated light. 7. All immigrants are between ages 20 and 40. Thus eventually Earth to Mars transportation costs could be expected to drop another order of magnitude, to $30,000 per passenger or so. For example a single square kilometer of cropland on Earth is illuminated with about 1000 MW of sunlight at noon; a power load equal to an American city of 1 million people. Requirements for Space Settlement Design – E.Gale, R. P.Edwards, The Boeing Company 4Frontiers Corporation. Among extraterrestrial bodies in our solar system, Mars is unique in that it possesses all the raw materials required to support not only life, but a new branch of human civilization. As a nonprofit news organization, our future depends on listeners like you who believe in the power of public service journalism. “Exploring and colonizing Mars can bring us new scientific understanding of climate change, of how planet-wide processes can make a warm and wet world into a barren landscape. But as soon as people commit to living there for their entire lives, they’re going to want to give the place an atmosphere to protect themselves from radiation. Use of reflectors and other light-channeling devices would not solve this problem, as the reflector areas would have to be enormous, essentially equal in area to the crop domains, creating preposterous engineering problems if any significant acreage is to be illuminated. An NTR augmented heavy lift launch vehicle, capable of transporting 24 colonists 1-way to the Red Planet. It has been shown9 that if concentrated supplies of metals of equal or greater value than silver (i.e. These inventions, licensed on Earth, will raise both Terrestrial and Martian living standards and contribute large amounts of income to support the development of the colony. (Originally found as badly formatted text at http://www.magick.net/mars/docs/m_econom.txt, a part of Mars Direct Manned Mars Mission Home Page). In short, Martian civilization will be practical because it will have to be, just as 19th Century American civilization was, and this forced pragmatism will give it an enormous advantage in competing with the less stressed, and therefore more tradition bound society remaining behind on Earth. However, with a cost per launch of about $1 billion, the cost per immigrant would be $40 million. This triangle trade, illustrated in Fig. A comparison of Earth to Ceres and Mars to Ceres all chemical and chemical/NEP missions is shown in Table 2. Ask the question and there will be no shortage of responses, with many experts citing the strategic, practical and scientific reasons for a Mars colony including: Mars is the most accessible planet in the solar system. Robert Zubrin At the same time, the ongoing bureaucratization of the former terrestrial frontier societies will make it ever harder for strong spirits to find adequate means for expressing their creative drive and initiative on Earth. I’m sure he has his motives. For chemical interplanetary systems, it is assumed that the dry inert mass excluding tankage is equal to 20% the payload. On Tuesday, tech entrepreneur Elon Musk told the world he has a plan to help humanity establish a colony on the planet Mars. This is an extremely important point and it is not well understood. The point, however, is that in contrast to colonists on any other known extraterrestrial body, Martian colonists will be able to live on the surface, not in tunnels, and move about freely and grow crops in the light of day. One huge economic benefit would be for funeral homes; their business will soar. And while there were a lot of exciting technical details, some major issues I anticipated were not covered. It can also be seen that there is a five-fold advantage in mass ratio delivering cargoes to the Earth's Moon from Mars over doing it from Earth. This wage differential, precisely analogous to the wage differential between Europe and America during most of the past 4 centuries, will make emigration to Mars both desirable and possible for the individual. I am very interested in the current talk about Mars. Thus for each passenger a total of 1000 kg needs to be delivered to the cycler orbit, which with an Isp of 380 s for the CH4/O2 propulsion system on the transfer capsules translates into 3200 kg in LEO. Each 100 meter diameter dome, massing about 50 tonnes (32 tonnes for the inflatable Kevlar pressure dome, 16 tonnes for the Plexiglas geodesic rigid shield dome, 2 tonnes for miscellaneous fittings), would enclose an area of about 2 acres. We have examined the prospects for colonizing Mars, addressing the question of its economic viability. Depends on your wage bracket. Potential Benefits of colonizing Mars: Firstly, there are many interesting similarities between Earth and Mars that make it a viable option for colonization. It will take a quantum leap, however, when actual human expeditions to the planet's surface begin. A confined world will limit opportunity for all and seek to enforce behavioral and cultural norms that will be unacceptable to many. R. Zubrin and C. McKay, "Technological Requirements for Terraforming Mars," AIAA 93-2005, AIAA/SAE 29th Joint Propulsion Conference, Monterey CA 1993. Nevertheless, even with optimistic extrapolation of robotic manufacturing techniques, Mars will not have the division of labor required to make it fully self-sufficient until its population numbers in the millions. The advantages accruing to such a society of terraforming Mars into a more human-friendly environment are manifest4. The existence of Australia was known to Europe for two hundred years before the first colony arrived, and no European power even bothered to claim the continent until 1830. For surface to orbit vehicles, it is assumed that dry mass excluding tankage is equal to the payload. Such a mechanism would not need to employ enforcers (e.g. It seems our current environment, political environment and otherwise, suggests that companies will be a key part of colonizing other planets. That is, while a Mars base of even a few hundred people can potentially be supported out of pocket by governmental expenditures, a Martian society of hundreds of thousands clearly cannot be. "Only by pushing mankind to its limits, to the bottoms of the … silver, germanium, hafnium, lanthanum, cerium, rhenium, samarium, gallium, gadolinium, gold, palladium, iridium, rubidium, platinum, rhodium, europium, etc.) This in itself is a very significant result. There are plenty of creatives who have already been doing lots of brainstorming about this. The Space Review: Colonize the Moon before Mars. Since such systems are well outside current engineering knowledge it is difficult to provide any useful estimate of how quickly they could complete the terraforming job. In contrast, the Moon has had virtually no history of water or volcanic action, with the result that it is basically composed of trash rocks with very little differentiation into ores that represent useful concentrations of anything interesting. To understand this, it is necessary to consider the energy relationships between the Earth, Moon, Mars, and the main asteroid belt. direct employment of very large scale energy systems such as terrawatt sized fusion reactors, huge space-based reflectors or lasers, etc.) Mars is the best target for colonization in the solar system because it has by far the greatest potential for self-sufficiency. 3. It is this question that has caused many to deem Mars colonization intractable, or at least inferior in prospect to the Moon. A frequent objection raised against scenarios for the human settlement and terraforming of Mars is that while such projects may be technologically feasible, there is no possible way that they can be paid for. Instead, let us note the benefits that can come from interplanetary colonization, even for those of us who decide to stay on the Earth’s surface. The only kind of land that exists on Mars right now is open. We have examined the potential of relatively near-term types of interplanetary transportation systems, and shown that with very modest advances on a historical scale, systems can be put in place that will allow individuals and families to emigrate to Mars at their own discretion. However, after a long struggle and fight for independence, colonialism in the African and Asian continents ended. As shown in the table below, Mars has an overwhelming positional advantage as a location from which to conduct such trade. For every next manned mission including hardware and operations, Mars One estimates the costs at US$ 4 billion. In the early years of settlement, such domes could be imported pre-fabricated from Earth. The potential of relatively near-term types of interplanetary transportation systems is examined, and it is shown that with very modest advances on a historical scale, systems can be put in place that will allow individuals and families to emigrate to Mars at their own discretion. Does the benefit of having an off-earth colony outweigh the very aparent risks Is it a safe investment of a substantial sum of resources Division Analysis assumes 100 immigrants/year starting in 2030, increasing at 2% annual rate, 50/50 male/female. That brings us to the first reason why humans must colonize Mars: 1. To be viable, a real Martian civilization must be either completely autarchic (very unlikely until the far future) or be able to produce some kind of export that allows it to pay for the imports it requires. Under conditions of such large scale and open immigration, sale of real-estate will add a significant source of income to the planet's economy. In Table 2 the mass numbers are for the total mission, it is understood that the total launch requirement could be divided up into many launch vehicles, as required. In 1867 the Czar sold off Alaska for a similar pittance. The Martians shall do well. In this soil, Wamelink and his team have grown a number of vegetables, like peas, tomatoes, radishes, and rye. Mars still has a 7-fold advantage in mass ratio over Earth as a port of departure for the Main Asteroid Belt, which translates into a payload to takeoff weight ratio nearly two orders of magnitude higher for Mars departure than for Earth. In analogy to frontier America but going well beyond it, Mars will be a society of self-selected immigrants, operating in a harsh, labor-short environment in which practical innovation and technological acumen will be at a premium. 1. The cost of colonizing Mars would far outweigh any economic benefit, unless the planet was solid gold. or self reproducing machines, such as Turing machines or nanotechnology. Nevertheless, Mars will not be considered fully terraformed until its air is breathable by humans. Increasing the degree of closure of the life support system on the cycler would reduce the consumable delivery requirement for each passenger, thereby reducing passage costs still more. Wood: The first book in the trilogy is so detailed in the story of colonization. It’s survival. If we assume that there is operating between Earth and Mars a cycling spacecraft which has the ability to recycle water and oxygen with 95% efficiency, then each passenger (100 kg with personal effects) will have to bring about 400 kg of supplies to provide himself with food, water and oxygen during a 200 day outbound trip to Mars. NASA warns people that a human mission to Mars will be difficult and the potential for disaster is a high. Nevertheless, the order of magnitude of the $320,000 fare cited for early immigrants-roughly the cost of a upper-middle class house in many parts of suburban America, or put another way, roughly the life's savings of a successful middle class family - is interesting. For example, if the United States chose to grant a mining patent to any private group that surveyed a piece of Martian real-estate to some specified degree of fidelity, such claims would be tradable today on the basis of their future speculative worth (and could probably be used to privately finance robotic mining survey probes in the near future). The exploration of Mars will also provide valuable scientific information about the history of the In order to understand the economics of Mars colonization it is necessary first to examine briefly the different phases of activity that will be necessary to transform the Red Planet. Denver, CO 80201, USA Fig. In Global Challenges, Igor Levchenko from Nanyang Technological University and Kateryna Bazaka from Queensland University of Technology, along with their colleagues, discuss the ethical, legal, and economic challenges and open questions facing Mars colonization, drawing attention to the lack of consensus and rich diversity of opinions on the topic. 1, Fall 1992, pp 25-80, 3. I’m just the telephone operator that plugs in the various voices and they speak. The feasibility or lack thereof of terraforming Mars is thus in a sense a corollary to the economic viability of the Martian colonization effort. Average of 3.5 children to an ideal Martian family. What it means is that the distance to Mars and the transportation challenge that it implies is not a major obstacle to the initiation of a human civilization on the Red Planet. People are wealth and power. Mortality rates are 0.1% per year between ages 0 and 59, 1% between ages 60 and 79, 10% per year for those over 80. Mars used to be a warm and wet planet like Earth, when Mars had a much thicker atmosphere than it … A planet of refuge will be needed, and Mars will be there. There will thus be a need to export food and other necessary goods from either Earth or Mars to the main belt. As mentioned before, the labor shortage that will prevail on Mars will drive Martian civilization towards both technological and social advances. For example use of air-breathing supersonic ramjet propulsion to perform a significant part of the Earth to orbit DV could cut orbit delivery costs by as much as a factor of 3. Carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen are only present on the Moon in parts per million quantities, much like gold in sea water. If we then assume total system operation cost is 7 times propellant costs (roughly double the total cost/fuel cost ratio of airlines), then the cost of delivery to low Earth orbit (LEO) could be about $100/kilogram. Reasons for colonizing Mars include pure curiosity, the potential for humans to provide more in-depth observational research than unmanned rovers, economic interest in its resources, and the possibility that the settlement of other planets could decrease the likelihood of human extinction. So there are slower-downers in the whole program of going to Mars that a lot of people that have read my books or have the dream from some independent source, they don’t want to acknowledge. Dinkin, S. (2018). ... And that spells political and economic benefit for whoever succeeds. That emigrant, in turn, would proceed to earn enough money to bring the rest of the family over. The economics of colonizing Mars . The essence of the base building phase is to conduct agricultural, industrial, chemical, and civil engineering research on Mars as to master an increasing array of techniques required to turn Martian raw materials into useful resources. Moreover the projected population growth rate, 1/5th that of Colonial America, while a bit slow, is significant on a historical scale, and assuming a cost of $1 billion per launch, the $4 billion per year program cost could be sustained for some time by any major power on Earth that cared to plant the seeds of its posterity on Mars. On Mars, even during the base building phase, large inflatable greenhouses made of transparent plastic protected by thin hard-plastic ultra-violet and abrasion resistant geodesic domes could be readily deployed, rapidly creating large domains for crop growth. In 1781, while Cornwallis was being blockaded into submission at Yorktown, the British deployed their fleet into the Caribbean to seize a few high-income sugar plantation islands from the French. Donate today — in any amount — to become a Marketplace Investor. At a delivery price of $100/kg to LEO, and assuming that the cost of the cycler itself is amortized over a very large number of missions, this in turn translates into a cost of $320,000 per passenger to Mars. It is shown, that of all bodies in the solar system other than Earth, Mars is unique in that it has the resources required to support a population of sufficient size to create locally a new branch of human civilization. If made of high strength plastics such as Kevlar, such a dome could have a safety factor of 4 against burst and weigh only about 4 tonnes, with another 4 tonnes required for its unpressurized Plexiglas shield. Using an electric propulsion LEO to L1 electric propulsion ferry followed by a powered flyby through a LEO perigee using high thrust chemical stage would allow the cycler to be reached with a chemical DV of only 1.3 km/s, thereby doubling payload and reducing costs yet again. 1. Mars is a place where humans can live and multiply to large numbers, supporting themselves with products of every description made out of indigenous materials. If it were desired to increase the power rating of the Earth-based NEP vessel so that its burn time were the same as the Mars-based system, the mass of the Earth-based mission would go to infinity. Enormous tracts of land were bought and sold in Kentucky for very large sums of money a hundred years before settlers arrived - for purposes of development trans-Appalacian America might as well have been Mars in the 1600's. Let us consider two models of how humans might emigrate to Mars; a government sponsored model and a privately sponsored model. An Shuttle derived heavy lift launch vehicle lifts 145 tonnes (A Saturn V had about this same capacity) to low Earth orbit, then a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR, such as was demonstrated in the USA in the 1960's) stage with an Isp of 900 s hurls a 70 tonne "habcraft" onto a 7 month trajectory to Mars. Put simply, if enough people find a way to live and prosper on Mars there is no doubt but that sooner or later they will terraform the planet. How much unemployment is there? But the biggest problem with the Moon, as with all other airless planetary bodies and proposed artificial free-space colonies (such as those proposed by Gerard O'Neill8) is that sunlight is not available in a form useful for growing crops. How one small business owner kept all his employees with revenue down 70%, Logistical challenges just beginning for nation’s vaccination drive, NASA is testing supercomputers to send to Mars, Reaching Mars is a hard sell, but not impossible, Ten years later, what we learned from WALL-E, Imagining the everyday economy of the moon, In the novel ‘Delta-v,’ asteroid mining gets us to move to space, Climate adaptation isn’t surrender. Assuming complete coverage of the planet with photosynthetic plants, it would take about a millennia to put the 120 mbar of oxygen in Mars' atmosphere needed to support human respiration in the open. Assuming that dwelling units for 20 families are erected within it, and each family is willing to pay $50,000 for their habitation land (a plot 20 meters on a side), then the total real-estate value enclosed by a single dome would be $1,000,000. Molly Wood and Kristin Schwab Oct 24, 2017. While humans could not breath the atmosphere of such a Mars, plants could, and under such conditions increasingly complex types of pioneering vegetation could be disseminated to create soil, oxygen, and ultimately the foundation for a thriving ecosphere on Mars. Mars is a harsher place than any on Earth. The Benefits of Colonizing Space: Space Habitats and The O’Neill Cylinder ... Mars One graphics. Licensing on Earth of the inventions created under conditions of necessity on Mars will bring vast amounts of income to support the development of the Red Planet, even as these same inventions continue to raise terrestrial living standards and destabilize tendencies that would otherwise exist on Earth towards technological and social stagnation. Once Mars has been partially terraformed however, with the creation of a thicker CO2 atmosphere via regolith outgassing, the habitation domes could be made virtually to any size, as they would not have to sustain a pressure differential between their interior and exterior. On the surface, the arguments given supporting this position appear to many to be cogent, in that Mars is distant, difficult to access, possesses a hostile environment and has no apparent resources of economic value to export. For every kilogram of payload delivered to orbit, about 70 kilograms of propellant are required. It’s actually very hard to land softly on Mars, and we only have about a 50 percent success rate with our robots. Obviously, there are many assumptions in the above calculation that could be changed that would either raise or lower the calculated ticket price significantly. But he delivered a sobering fact … R. Zubrin, "Mars and Luna Direct," Journal of Practical Applications in Space, Vol 4, No. Space, a feel-good pill for the economy If we then make various reasonable demographic assumptions, the population curve for Mars can be computed. A frontier society based on technological excellence and pragmatism, and populated by people self-selected for personal drive, will perforce be a hot-bed of invention, and these inventions will not only serve the needs of the Martians but of the terrestrial population as well. If agriculture only areas are desired, the domes could be made much bigger, as plants do not require more than about 1 psi atmospheric pressure.